Patricia Toledo

Department of Economics
Bentley Annex 345
Athens, Ohio 45701

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Ohio University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

September 2016Heterogeneous Impact Dynamics of a Rural Business Development Program in Nicaragua
with Michael R. Carter, Emilia Tjernström: w22628
We study the impacts of a rural development program designed to boost the income of the smallfarm sector in Nicaragua. Exploiting the random assignment of treatment, we find statistically and economically significant impacts on gross farm income and investment in productive farm capital. Using continuous treatment estimation techniques, we examine the evolution of program impacts over time and find that the estimated income increase persists and that the impacts on productive capital stock continue to rise even after the program concluded. Additionally, panel quantile methods reveal striking heterogeneity of program impacts on both income and investment. We show that this heterogeneity is not random and that there appear to exist low-performing household types who benefit little from the p...

Published: Michael R. Carter & Emilia Tjernström & Patricia Toledo, 2018. "Heterogeneous impact dynamics of a rural business development program in Nicaragua," Journal of Development Economics, . citation courtesy of

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