Patricia R. Freeman

Department of Pharmacy Practice & Science
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40536

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: University of Kentucky

NBER Working Papers and Publications

July 2020Competitive Effects of Federal and State Opioid Restrictions: Evidence from the Controlled Substance Laws
with Sumedha Gupta, Thuy D. Nguyen, Kosali I. Simon: w27520
A large concern in U.S. opioid policy is whether supply side controls are effective at reducing the quantity of opioids prescribed, without harmful substitution. An unstudied way that policy targeted a major opioid through the federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) was the August 2014 scheduling of tramadol products, the second most popular opioid medication at the time. Twelve states implemented the identical policy prior to federal action, providing a unique opportunity to compare effectiveness of the same opioid policy at state versus federal levels. This is important because many recent opioid policy interventions have only taken the form of state actions, while federal policy has largely been advisory. Seven weeks after tramadol's scheduling, the leading opioid form on the market, hyd...

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