|Comment on "Academic Engagement, Commercialization, and Scholarship: Empirical Evidence from Agricultural and Life Scientists at US Land Grant Universities"|
in Economics of Research and Innovation in Agriculture, Petra Moser, editor
|Scientific Education and Innovation: From Technical Diplomas to University STEM Degrees|
with : w25928
This paper studies the effects of university STEM education on innovation and labor market outcomes by exploiting a change in enrollment requirements in Italian STEM majors. University-level scientific education had two direct effects on the development of patents by students who had acquired a STEM degree. First, the policy changed the direction of their innovation. Second, it allowed these individuals to reach top positions within firms and be more involved in the innovation process. STEM degrees, however, also changed occupational sorting. Some higher-achieving individuals used STEM degrees to enter jobs that required university-level education, but did not focus on patenting.
|Does Compulsory Licensing Discourage Invention? Evidence From German Patents After WWI|
with , : w21442
This paper investigates whether compulsory licensing – which allows governments to license patents without the consent of patent-owners – discourages invention. Our analysis exploits new historical data on German patents to examine the effects of compulsory licensing under the US Trading-with-the-Enemy Act on invention in Germany. We find that compulsory licensing was associated with a 28 percent increase in invention. Historical evidence indicates that, as a result of war-related demands, fields with licensing were negatively selected, so OLS estimates may underestimate the positive effects of compulsory licensing on future inventions.
Published: Joerg Baten, Nicola Bianchi, Petra Moser, Compulsory licensing and innovation – Historical evidence from German patents after WWI, Journal of Development Economics, Volume 126, 2017, Pages 231-242, ISSN 0304-3878, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2017.01.002.