Institutional Affiliation: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
|Why Have Negative Nominal Interest Rates Had Such a Small Effect on Bank Performance? Cross Country Evidence|
with , : w25004
We examine the effect of negative nominal interest rates on bank profitability and behavior using a cross-country panel of over 5,100 banks in 27 countries. Our data set includes annual observations for Japanese and European banks between 2010 and 2016, which covers all advanced economies that have experienced negative nominal rates, including currency union members as well as both fixed and floating exchange rates countries. When we compare negative nominal interest rates with low positive rates, banks experience losses in interest income that are almost exactly offset by savings on deposit expenses and gains in non-interest income, including capital gains on securities and fees. We find heterogeneous effects of negative rates: banks from regimes with floating exchange rates, small ban...
Published: Jose A. Lopez & Andrew K. Rose & Mark M. Spiegel, 2020. "Why Have Negative Nominal Interest Rates Had Such a Small Effect on Bank Performance? Cross Country Evidence," European Economic Review, . citation courtesy of
|Uncertainty and Hyperinflation: European Inflation Dynamics after World War I|
with : w24624
Fiscal deficits, elevated debt-to-GDP ratios, and high inflation rates suggest hyperinflation could have potentially emerged in many European countries after World War I. We demonstrate that economic policy uncertainty was instrumental in pushing a subset of European countries into hyperinflation shortly after the end of the war. Germany, Austria, Poland, and Hungary (GAPH) suffered from frequent uncertainty shocks – and correspondingly high levels of uncertainty – caused by protracted political negotiations over reparations payments, the apportionment of the Austro-Hungarian debt, and border disputes. In contrast, other European countries exhibited lower levels of measured uncertainty between 1919 and 1925, allowing them more capacity with which to implement credible commitments to their ...