Institutional Affiliation: Vanguard Investment Strategy Group
|Tax Externalities of Equity Mutual Funds|
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Investors holding mutual funds in taxable accounts face a classic externality. The after-tax return of their investment depends on the behavior of others. In particular, redemptions may force the mutual fund to sell some of its equity positions in order to pay off the liquidating investors. As a result, it may be forced to distribute taxable capital gains to its shareholders. On the other hand, new investors convey a positive externality upon existing investors by diluting the unrealized capital gain position of the fund. This paper's simulations show that these externalities are important determinants of the after-tax performance of equity mutual funds.
Published: Dickson, Joel, John Shoven, and Clemens Sialm. “Tax Externalities of Equity Mutual Funds.” National Tax Journal 53 (3/2) (2000): 607-628. citation courtesy of
|Panel Session, Industry Perspectives|
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in Administrative Aspects of Investment-Based Social Security Reform, John B. Shoven, editor
|A Stock Index Mutual Fund Without Net Capital Gains Realizations|
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This paper reconsiders the literature on tax options by examining the ability to defer net capital gains realizations within an equity portfolio whose constituents change over time. Unlike previous studies on the value of tax options, this paper examines after-tax returns to shareholders within an equity mutual fund. The mutual fund context allows certain features of the United States' tax laws -- namely, wash-sale rules and the offsetting of short-term and long-term capital gains and losses -- to be incorporated in assessing the potential improvement in post-tax returns to investors engaging in tax minimization strategies. Specifically, this paper examines the feasibility of managing open-end and closed-end Standard and Poor's 500 index funds which defer net capital gains realizations. ...
|Ranking Mutual Funds on an After-Tax Basis|
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This paper takes shareholder level taxes into account in determining the performance of growth and growth and income mutual funds over the 1963-1992 period. It ranks a sample of funds on a before and after-tax basis for investors in different income classes facing various investment horizons. The differences between the relative ranking of funds on a before and after-tax basis are dramatic. especially for middle and high income investors. For instance. one fund which ranks in the 19th percentile on a pre-tax basis ranks in the 61st percentile for an upper income. taxable investor.