Francisco Rodriguez

Department of Economics
Wesleyan University
238 Church Street
Middletown, CT 06459-0007

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Wesleyan University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

April 2009The Price of Political Opposition: Evidence from Venezuela's Maisanta
with Chang-Tai Hsieh, Edward Miguel, Daniel Ortega: w14923
In 2004, the Chávez regime in Venezuela distributed the list of several million voters whom had attempted to remove him from office throughout the government bureaucracy, allegedly to identify and punish these voters. We match the list of petition signers distributed by the government to household survey respondents to measure the economic effects of being identified as a Chavez political opponent. We find that voters who were identified as Chavez opponents experienced a 5 percent drop in earnings and a 1.5 percentage point drop in employment rates after the voter list was released. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that the loss aggregate TFP from the misallocation of workers across jobs was substantial, on the order of 3 percent of GDP.

Published: Hsieh, Chang-Tai, Edward Miguel, Daniel Ortega, and Francisco Rodriguez. 2011. "The Price of Political Opposition: Evidence from Venezuela's Maisanta." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3(2): 196-214. DOI: 10.1257/app.3.2.196 citation courtesy of

January 2001Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence
with Dani Rodrik
in NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, Ben S. Bernanke and Kenneth Rogoff, editors

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