Anna L. Ziff

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Institutional Affiliation: Duke University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

May 2017Gender Differences in the Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program
with Jorge Luis García, James J. Heckman: w23412
This paper studies the life-cycle impacts of a widely-emulated high-quality, intensive early childhood program with long-term follow up. The program starts early in life (at 8 weeks of age) and is evaluated by an RCT. There are multiple treatment effects which we summarize through interpretable aggregates. Girls have a greater number of statistically significant treatment effects than boys and effect sizes for them are generally bigger. The source of this difference is worse home environments for girls with greater scope for improvement by the program. Fathers of sons support their families more than fathers of daughters.

Published: Jorge Luis García & James J. Heckman & Anna L. Ziff, 2018. "Gender Differences in the Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program," European Economic Review, . citation courtesy of

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